Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Robbins Organization Behavior Leadership Quiz

Chapter 11 Leadership 1) John Kotter's view argues that management focuses on coping with complexity, whereas leadership focuses on coping with ________. A) conflict B) success C) day-to-day matters D) morale E) change Answer: E Explanation: E) John Kotter of the Harvard Business School argues that management is about coping with complexity. Good management brings about order and consistency by drawing up formal plans, designing rigid organization structures, and monitoring results against the plans.Leadership, in contrast, is about coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a vision of the future; then they align people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles. Diff: 2Page Ref: 150 Objective: Management and Leadership Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 1 2) Leadership is best defined as ________. Similar essay: Absolute StatementA) the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals B) the process of drawing up formal plans and monitoring their implementation C) the process of carrying out the vision and strategy provided by management D) coordinating and staffing the organization and handling day-to-day problems E) the proper use of the influence gained exclusively as a result of one's organizational position Answer: A Explanation: A) Leadership can be defined as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.Leaders can emerge from within a group as well as by formal appointment. Diff: 2Page Ref: 150 Objective: Leadership Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3) Which of the following statements regarding leadership is true? A) All leaders are managers. B) Formal rights ensure good leadership. C) All managers are leaders. D) All leaders are hierarchically superior to followers. E) Nonsanctioned leaders hip is as important as formal influence. Answer: E Explanation: E) The source of a leader's influence may be formal, such as that provided by managerial rank in an organization.But not all leaders are managers, nor, for that matter, are all managers leaders. Just because an organization provides its managers with certain formal rights is no assurance they will lead effectively. Nonsanctioned leadership—the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization—is often as important or more important than formal influence. Diff: 2Page Ref: 151 Objective: Leadership Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 1 4) Which theory of leadership differentiates leaders from nonleaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics? A) Fiedler's modelB) attributes theory C) LMX theory D) contingency theory E) trait theory Answer: E Explanation: E) Trait theories of leadership focus on personal qualities and characteristics. The search for persona lity, social, physical, or intellectual attributes that differentiate leaders from nonleaders goes back to the earliest stages of leadership research. Diff: 1Page Ref: 151 Objective: Trait Theories Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 5) Early research efforts at isolating leadership traits resulted in a number of dead ends. A breakthrough, of sorts, came when researchers began ________.A) organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework B) using the Keirsey Temperament Sorter C) using Cattell's 16 personality factors D) focusing on Eysenck's three factor model E) considering the Revised NEO Personality Inventory Answer: A Explanation: A) Early research efforts at isolating leadership traits resulted in a number of dead ends. By the 1990s, after numerous studies and analyses, about the best we could say was that most leaders â€Å"are not like other people,† but the particular traits that characterized them varied a great deal from review to review.A breakth rough, of sorts, came when researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework. Most of the dozens of traits in various leadership reviews fit under one of the Big Five, giving strong support to traits as predictors of leadership. Diff: 2Page Ref: 151 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 6) According to research, which of the Big Five personality traits is the most important in effective leaders? A) conscientiousness B) openness C) extraversion D) agreeablenessE) emotional stability Answer: C Explanation: C) A comprehensive review of leadership literature, when organized around the Big Five, has found extraversion to be the most important trait of effective leaders but more strongly related to leader emergence than to leader effectiveness. Conscientiousness and openness to experience also showed strong relationships to leadership, though not quite as strong as extraversion. Diff: 1Page Ref: 151 Objective: Trait Theories Quest. Category: Concept/Defin itionalLO: 7) Emotional intelligence (EI) is critical to effective leadership because one of its core components is ________. A) conscientiousness B) empathy C) optimism D) intraversion E) perfectionism Answer: B Explanation: B) A core component of EI is empathy. Empathetic leaders can sense others' needs, listen to what followers say (and don't say), and read the reactions of others. The caring part of empathy, especially for the people with whom you work, is what inspires people to stay with a leader when the going gets rough. Diff: 1Page Ref: 152Objective: Trait Theories Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 8) Which of the following statements accurately reflects the conclusions about the trait theories of leadership? A) Traits were better predictors of leadership 20 years ago than they are now. B) The Big Five traits are inadequate for predicting leadership. C) Traits are especially useful for distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. D) Traits do a good j ob of predicting the emergence of leaders. E) Overall, traits are poor predictors of leadership. Answer: DExplanation: D) Two conclusions can be offered about the effectiveness of the trait theory of leadership. First, traits can predict leadership. Twenty years ago, the evidence suggested otherwise. The Big Five seem to have rectified that. Second, traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. Diff: 2Page Ref: 152 Objective: Trait Theories Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 9) Your company's HR director is a believer in trait theories of leadership.He believes that he can differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics. The HR director plans to promote Lawrence, a highly extroverted manager with a great deal of ambition and energy to the position of VP, Manufacturing. He asks for your expertise in helping him to apply trait theory to leadership selection within your company. The director believes that because of his innate characteristics, Lawrence will be highly effective at helping the company achieve its production goals.You advise the director against basing his decision purely on traits because ________. A) research has identified emotional stability as the strongest predictor of leadership effectiveness B) studies have found that the Big Five traits are difficult to identify in leaders C) studies have shown that traits are poor predictors of leadership effectiveness D) research has found that conscientiousness is a better predictor of effectiveness than extroversion E) research has shown that effective managers are often unlikely to become effective leaders Answer: CExplanation: C) Traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. The fact that an individual exhibits the t raits and others consider that person to be a leader does not necessarily mean the leader is successful at getting his or her group to achieve its goals. The context matters, too. Diff: 3Page Ref: 152 AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Trait Theories Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 10) Which of the following theories of leadership implies that individuals can be trained to become leaders?A) trait theories B) LMX theory C) contingency theories D) behavioral theories E) Fiedler model Answer: D Explanation: D) The failures of early trait studies led researchers in the late 1940s through the 1960s to wonder whether there was something unique in the way effective leaders behave. While trait research provides a basis for selecting the right people for leadership, behavioral studies implied we could train people to be leaders. Diff: 2Page Ref: 152 Objective: Behavioral Theories Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 1) The Ohio State Studies narrowed the independent dimensions of le ader behavior to two that substantially accounted for most of the leadership behavior described by employees: consideration and ________. A) employee-orientation B) empathy C) constructing vision D) initiating structure E) charisma Answer: D Explanation: D) Seeking to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior, the Ohio State Studies determined that two dimensions accounted for most effective leadership behavior: initiating structure and consideration.Initiating structure is the extent to which leaders are likely to define and structure their roles and those of their employees in the search for goal attainment. Consideration is the extent to which a leader's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings. Diff: 2Page Ref: 152 Objective: Ohio State Studies Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 12) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio State Studies, initiating struct ure refers to the extent to which ________.A) a person's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings B) a leader engages in participative management C) a leader is accepting of and respects individual differences among various team members D) a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment E) a leader initiates efforts to communicate personally with employees Answer: DExplanation: D) As a behavioral dimension of leaders, initiating structure is the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals. Diff: 2Page Ref: 152 Objective: Initiating Structure Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 13) Kimberley, a manager at a large company, tends to assign group members to particular task s, expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance, and emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.In the light of the Ohio State Studies, this indicates that Kimberley, as a leader, is ________. A) low in task orientation B) high in consideration C) relationship oriented D) employee oriented E) high in initiating structure Answer: E Explanation: E) Initiating structure is the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals.A leader high in initiating structure is someone who â€Å"assigns group members to particular tasks,† â€Å"expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance,† and â€Å"emphasizes the meeting of deadlines. † Diff: 3Page Ref: 152 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 14) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio State Studies, ________ is the extent to which a person's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings. A) consideration B) initiating structure C) production orientationD) task orientation E) position power Answer: A Explanation: A) In the context of behavioral dimensions of leadership identified in the Ohio State Studies, consideration is the extent to which a person's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings. Diff: 2Page Ref: 152 Objective: Consideration Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 15) Jim, a VP at a large company, helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support.In the light of the Ohio State Studies, this indicates that Jim, as a leader, is ________. A) task oriented B) high in consideration C) high in initiating structure D) low in relationship orientation E) production oriented Answer: B Explanation: B) Consideration is the extent to which a person's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings. A leader high in consideration helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, treats all employees as equals, and expresses appreciation and support. Diff: 3Page Ref: 152 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest.Category: Application LO: 2 16) The two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies are ________. A) absolute leadership and contingency leadership B) transformational leaders and authentic leaders C) employee-oriented leaders and production-oriented leaders D) initiating structure and consideration E) initiation and completion Answer: C Explanation: C) Leadership studies at the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center located behavioral characteristics of leaders that appeared r elated to performance effectiveness: the employee-oriented leader and the production-oriented leader.The employee-oriented leader emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among them; the production-oriented leader emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job—concern focused on accomplishing the group's tasks. Diff: 2Page Ref: 153 Objective: University of Michigan Studies Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 17) The University of Michigan studies define a(n) ________ leader as one who takes a personal interest in the needs of his/her subordinates.A) contingency B) task-oriented C) employee-oriented D) production-oriented E) structure initiating Answer: C Explanation: C) According to the behavioral dimensions of leaders identified by the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center, the employee-oriented leader emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a personal i nterest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among them. Diff: 2Page Ref: 153 Objective: Employee-Oriented Leaders Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 8) If a leader's main concern is accomplishing his/her group's tasks, the University of Michigan studies label this leader ________. A) employee-oriented B) high in consideration C) relationship-oriented D) low in initiating structure E) production-oriented Answer: E Explanation: E) According to the behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center, the production-oriented leader emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job, his main concern being accomplishing the group's tasks. Diff: 2Page Ref: 153 Objective: Production-Oriented LeadersQuest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 19) The behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center are closely related to those identified in the Ohio State Study. Employee-oriented leadership is similar to ________, and production-oriented leadership is similar to ________. A) initiating structure; consideration B) task-orientation; relationship-orientation C) transformational leadership; authentic leadership D) authentic leadership; transformational leadership E) consideration; initiating structure Answer: EExplanation: E) The behavioral dimensions identified by the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center are closely related to the Ohio State dimensions. Employee-oriented leadership is similar to consideration, and production-oriented leadership is similar to initiating structure. In fact, most leadership researchers use the terms synonymously. Diff: 2Page Ref: 153 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 20) Contingency theories focus on the ________ that impact leadership success.. A) leader's personal characteristics and qualities B) leader's abilities to inspire and transform followersC) situational variables D) values and ethics E) aspects of the leader's behavior Answer: C Explanation: C) Numerous studies have shown that predicting leadership success is more complex than isolating a few traits or behaviors, since leadership styles that are effective in very bad times or in very good times do not necessarily translate into long-term success. This idea led researchers to change their focus from trait and behavior theories to situational influences on leadership styles, or contingency theories. Diff: 1Page Ref: 154 Objective: Contingency Models Quest. Category: Concept/DefinitionalLO: 3 21) The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by ________. A) Hersey and Blanchard B) Blake and Mouton C) Fred Fiedler D) John Kotter E) Douglas Surber Answer: C Explanation: C) The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by Fred Fiedler. Fiedler believes that a key factor in leadership success is the individual's basic leadership style. According to the Fiedler contingency model, effe ctive group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control. Diff: 1Page Ref: 154Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 22) Which model represents the theory that effective group performance depends on the proper match between a leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader? A) leader-member exchange model B) Fiedler's contingency model C) Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model D) Vroom and Yetton's leader-participation model E) House's path-goal model of leadership Answer: B Explanation: B) According to Fiedler's Contingency Model, the key factor predicting leadership success is the individual's basic leadership style.Since Fiedler assumes an individual's leadership style is fixed, effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style and the degree to which the situation gives the le ader control. Diff: 2Page Ref: 154 Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 23) In Fiedler's model, if a respondent describes his or her least preferred co-worker in relatively positive terms, then the respondent is considered to be ________. A) relationship oriented B) production-oriented C) task-oriented D) high in initiating structure E) low in consideration Answer: AExplanation: A) Fiedler's least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire measures whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented by asking respondents to rate their least favorite coworker. If respondents describe their least favorite coworker in favorable terms (a high LPC score), they are probably relationship-oriented. In contrast, respondents who describe their least-preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low LPC score) are viewed as primarily interested in productivity and as being task-oriented. Diff: 3Page Ref: 154 Objective: Least Preferred Coworker Quest. Categor y: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 4) If a survey respondent sees his or her least preferred co-worker in unfavorable terms, Fiedler would categorize the respondent as ________. A) high in consideration B) task-oriented C) low in initiating structure D) employee-oriented E) relationship oriented Answer: B Explanation: B) Fiedler's least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire measures whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented by asking respondents to rate their least favorite coworker. Respondents who describe their least-preferred coworker in unfavorable terms (a low LPC score) are viewed as primarily interested in productivity and as being task-oriented.Conversely, respondents who describe their least-favorite coworker in favorable terms (a high LPC score) are considered to be relationship-oriented. Diff: 2Page Ref: 154 Objective: Least Preferred Coworker Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 25) Fran has just completed and scored the LPC questionnaire given to her during an evaluation exercise. She is surprised when she finds out that she described her least preferred co-worker in relatively positive terms because she recalls being particularly annoyed by this difficult co-worker several times in the past.Based on your understanding of Fiedler's model, you explain to Fran that her LPC score makes sense within the model because ________. A) Fran tends to become very dominating when given ambiguous tasks B) Fran is usually much more focused on productivity than on developing relationships C) Fran tends in general to focus on building good relationships with the other employees D) Fran has a spotty work history and has tended to switch jobs every couple of years E) Fran is usually chosen for positions of high responsibility within your organization Answer: CExplanation: C) If you describe the person you are least able to work with in favorable terms (a high LPC score), Fiedler would label you relationship oriented. In contrast, if you see your least p referred co-worker in relatively unfavorable terms (a low LPC score), you are primarily interested in productivity and are task oriented. Diff: 3Page Ref: 154 AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Least Preferred Coworker Quest. Category: Application LO: 3 26) Fiedler's contingency leadership model assumes that ________. A) an individual's leadership style is essentially fixedB) an individual can use the LPC to change his/her style to a more productive style C) there is no ideal way to match leadership styles with situations D) all leaders can learn to adapt to different contingencies E) each person's style will change in accordance with the situation at hand Answer: A Explanation: A) Fiedler assumes an individual's leadership style is fixed. This means if a situation requires a task-oriented leader and the person in the leadership position is relationship oriented, either the situation has to be modified or the leader has to be replaced to achieve optimal effectiveness.Diff: 2Page Ref: 154 Objective: Fiedler Contingency Model Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 27) Fiedler labels the degree of confidence, trust, and respect that subordinates have in their leader as ________. A) leader-member relations B) task structure C) positional power D) leader-member exchange E) leader-member orientation Answer: A Explanation: A) Fiedler identified three contingency or situational dimensions to leadership success, including leader-member relations, task structure, and position power. Leader-member relations is the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader.Diff: 1Page Ref: 154 Objective: Leader-Member Relations Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 28) Which of the following situational dimensions identified by Fiedler relates to the degree to which job assignments are procedurized, that is, structured or unstructured? A) leader-member relations B) task orientation C) task structure D) initiating structure E) productivity oriented Ans wer: C Explanation: C) Fiedler identified three contingency or situational dimensions in which certain types of leaders might excel or fail, including leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.Task structure is the degree to which job assignments are procedurized (that is, structured or unstructured). Leaders who are task-oriented, Fielder proposes, perform best when the situation is very favorable or very unfavorable. Diff: 1Page Ref: 154 Objective: Task Structures Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 29) In the context of Fiedler's model, the situational dimension termed ________ relates to the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases. A) task structure B) leader-member exchange C) position powerD) initiating structure E) leader-member relations Answer: C Explanation: C) In the context of Fiedler's model, the situational dimension termed position power relates to the degree o f influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases. Diff: 1Page Ref: 154 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 30) If you were using the Fielder contingency model of leadership to establish a scenario in your company which gives managers maximum control, which of the following combinations of situational dimensions would you seek to achieve?A) high task structure, good leader-member relations, and strong position power B) limited position power, good leader-member relations, and low task structure C) less structured jobs, strong position power, and moderate leader-member relations D) broad employee responsibilities, low position power, and moderate leader-member relations E) good leader-member relations, low position power, unstructured jobs Answer: A Explanation: A) The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style and the degree to whic h the situation gives the leader control.Fiedler states that the better the leader–member relations, the more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control the leader has. Diff: 3Page Ref: 154 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 3 31) According to the Fiedler contingency model of leadership, task-oriented leaders perform best in situations of ________, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in ________ situations. A) moderate control; high and low control B) high control; low and moderate control C) high and moderate control; low controlD) high and low control; moderate control E) moderate and low control; high control Answer: D Explanation: D) In the Fiedler contingency model, combining the three contingency dimensions yields eight possible situations in which leaders can find themselves. Fiedler recently condensed these eight situations down to three. According to him, task-oriented leaders perform best in sit uations of high and low control, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situations. Diff: 2Page Ref: 154 Objective: Matching Leaders and Situations Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 2) Which of the following leadership theories argues that because of time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their subordinates—the in-group, who are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader's attention, and are more likely to receive special privileges? A) situational leadership theory B) leader-member exchange C) path-goal D) expectancy E) Fiedler's theory Answer: B Explanation: B) Leader–member exchange (LMX) theory proposes that, because of time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. These individuals make up the in-group.Members of the in-group are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader's attention, and are more likely to receive s pecial privileges. Other followers fall into the out-group. Diff: 1Page Ref: 156 Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 As you have observed your department manager and her interactions with the department's employees, you have come to believe in LMX theory. Sarah and Joe get less of the manager's time. Sally gets fewer of the preferred rewards that the manager controls and John has a relationship with the manager based on formal authority interactions.Rebecca is trusted. Jennifer gets a disproportionate amount of the manager's attention and is more likely to receive special privileges. 33) According to LMX theory, the in-group is likely to be composed of ________. A) Rebecca and Jennifer only B) Jennifer only C) Rebecca only D) John, Rebecca, and Jennifer only E) Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only Answer: A Explanation: A) The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leade r implicitly categorizes the follower as an â€Å"in† or an â€Å"out,† and that relationship is relatively stable over time.Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those employees with whom they want a closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not. Diff: 3Page Ref: 156 AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: In-Group Quest. Category: Application LO: 3 34) According to LMX theory, which of the following employees is likely to be included in the out-group? A) Rebecca only B) Jennifer only C) Sarah and Jennifer only D) Sarah and Joe only E) Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only Answer: EExplanation: E) The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an â€Å"in† or an â€Å"out,† and that relationship is relatively stable over time. Leaders induce LMX by rewarding those employees with whom they want a closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not . Diff: 3Page Ref: 156 AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Out-Group Quest. Category: Application LO: 3 35) According to the LMX theory, a leader implicitly categorizes followers as â€Å"in† or â€Å"out† ________. A) after careful performance analysisB) on a temporary basis C) early in the interaction D) because of political pressure E) only after several months of working together Answer: C Explanation: C) The LMX theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an â€Å"in† or an â€Å"out,† and that relationship is relatively stable over time. Diff: 2Page Ref: 156 Objective: Leader-Member Exchange Theory Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 36) According to research relating to the LMX theory of leadership, which of the following does not appear to characterize in-group members?A) demographic characteristics similar to those of the leader B) atti tudes similar to those of the leader C) personality characteristics similar to those of the leader D) gender opposite to that of the leader E) higher level of competence than out-group members Answer: D Explanation: D) Just how the leader chooses who falls into each category is unclear, but there is evidence in-group members have demographic, attitude, and personality characteristics similar to those of their leader or a higher level of competence than out-group members.Leaders and followers of the same gender tend to have closer (higher LMX) relationships than those of different genders. Diff: 2Page Ref: 156 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 37) Which of the following is true according to research testing the LMX theory of leadership? A) There is substantive evidence that leaders differentiate among followers. B) Disparities in how leaders treat different followers are largely random. C) The in-group shows no measurable difference in positive outcomes compared to the out- group. D) In-group members usually show lesser â€Å"citizenship† behavior at work.E) In-group members are no more satisfied with their leader than out-group members. Answer: A Explanation: A) Research to test LMX theory has been generally supportive, with substantive evidence that leaders do differentiate among followers; these disparities are far from random; and followers with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, engage in more helping or â€Å"citizenship† behaviors at work, and report greater satisfaction with their superior. Diff: 2Page Ref: 156 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 8) Believing that in-group members are the most competent, leaders invest their resources in them. This, in turn, leads the in-group members to show higher levels of performance at their jobs. This chain of events reflects the concept of ________. A) assumption fallacy B) reverse engineering C) self-fulfilling prophecy D) Newcomb's paradox E) predestination para dox Answer: C Explanation: C) Followers with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, engage in more helping or â€Å"citizenship† behaviors at work, and report greater satisfaction with their superior.These positive findings for in-group members reflect the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy; leaders invest their resources with those they expect to perform best—the in-group members—and thus unwittingly fulfill their prophecy. Diff: 2Page Ref: 156-157 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 39) Who was first researcher to consider charismatic leadership in terms of OB? A) Max Weber B) Robert House C) Fred Fiedler D) John Kotter E) Douglas Surber Answer: B Explanation: B) The first researcher to consider charismatic leadership in terms of OB was Robert House.According to House's charismatic leadership theory, followers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. Diff: 1Page Ref: 157 Quest. Category : Concept/Definitional LO: 4 40) Which theory of leadership proposes that followers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors? A) transformational leadership theory B) authentic leadership theory C) transactional leadership theory D) attributional leadership theory E) charismatic leadership theory Answer: EExplanation: E) According to House's charismatic leadership theory, followers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. A number of studies have attempted to identify the characteristics of charismatic leaders: they have a vision, they are willing to take personal risks to achieve that vision, they are sensitive to follower needs, and they exhibit extraordinary behaviors. Diff: 1Page Ref: 157 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 41) Which of the following is not a key characteristic of a charismatic leader?A) sensitivity to follower needs B) unconventional behavior C) vision a nd articulation D) focus on maintaining status quo E) willingness to take risks Answer: D Explanation: D) Charismatic leadership theory, developed by Robert House, is based on the idea that when followers observe certain behaviors displayed by a leader, they view that leader as having extraordinary or even heroic leadership abilities. Recent studies have sought to identify these specific behaviors. Charismatic leaders appear to possess key characteristics, ncluding sensitivity to follower needs, unconventional behavior, vision and articulation, and willingness to take risks. Diff: 2Page Ref: 157 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 42) Which of the following is true regarding whether charismatic leaders are born or made? A) Charismatic individuals are not born with traits that make them charismatic. B) Charismatic leaders are usually not achievement oriented. C) Charisma cannot be learned. D) Most experts believe individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors. E) Personality has shown no link to charismatic leadership.Answer: D Explanation: D) Individuals are born with traits that make them charismatic. Personality is also related to charismatic leadership; charismatic leaders are likely to be extraverted, self-confident, and achievement oriented. Although a small minority thinks charisma is inherited and cannot be learned, most experts believe individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors. Diff: 2Page Ref: 158 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 43) According to evidence, what is the first step a charismatic leader takes to influence followers?A) developing a formal vision statement B) engaging in emotion-inducing and often unconventional behavior C) setting an example for followers through actions and words D) articulating an appealing vision E) communicating high performance expectations Answer: D Explanation: D) Evidence suggests that charismatic leaders follow a four-step process to influence followers. This proce ss begins with articulating an appealing vision, a long-term strategy for attaining a goal by linking the present with a better future for the organization.Desirable visions fit the times and circumstances and reflect the uniqueness of the organization. Diff: 2Page Ref: 158 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 44) Which of the following is true about the effectiveness of charismatic leadership? A) Research shows scant correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance. B) Charisma may not always be generalizable. C) Charisma appears most successful when the environment is stress-free. D) Charismatic leaders usually surface when the organization is stable and successful.E) Charismatic leadership qualities are best utilized in lower-level management jobs. Answer: B Explanation: B) Research shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers. However, charisma may not always be generalizable; its effect iveness may depend on the situation. Charisma appears most successful when the follower's task has an ideological component or the environment includes a high degree of stress and uncertainty. It's more difficult to utilize a person's charismatic leadership qualities in lower-level management jobs.Diff: 2Page Ref: 159 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 45) Leaders who clarify role and task requirements to accomplish established goals exhibit a(n) _________ style of leadership. A) transformational B) transactional C) charismatic D) authentic E) situational Answer: B Explanation: B) Recent studies, including the Ohio State Studies, Fiedler's model, and path-goal theory, have focused on the differences between transformational leaders and transactional leaders. In contrast to ransformational leaders who inspire their followers to transcend their self-interests for the good of the organization, transactional leaders encourage their followers to achieve goals by defining specifi c goals and task requirements. Diff: 1Page Ref: 160 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 46) ________ leaders inspire followers to transcend their self-interests for the good of the organization and can have an extraordinary effect on their followers. A) Transformational B) Transactional C) Task oriented D) Laissez-faire E) Transcendental Answer: AExplanation: A) Transformational leaders can have an extraordinary effect on their followers, inspiring them toward selfless goals that benefit the larger organization. These types of leaders inspire their followers by paying attention to their concerns, helping them rethink old problems in new ways, and encouraging them to achieve goals as a group. Diff: 1Page Ref: 160 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 47) In terms of the full range of leadership model, which leader behavior is the least effective? A) management by exception (active) B) contingent reward C) management by exception (passive) D) individualized consideration E) laissez-faire Answer: E Explanation: E) According to the full range of leadership model, laissez-faire is the most passive and therefore least effective of leader behaviors. Management by exception—active or passive—is slightly better than laissez-faire. Diff: 1Page Ref: 160 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 48) According to the full range of leadership model, which of the following leader behaviors will enable leaders to motivate followers to perform above expectations and transcend their self-interest for the sake of the organization? A) management by exception (active) B) contingent rewardC) individualized consideration D) management by exception (passive) E) laissez-faire Answer: C Explanation: C) According to the full range of leadership model, leadership behaviors including laissez-faire, management by exception (active or passive), and contingent reward will not get employees to go above and beyond the call of duty. Only with the four styles of tran sformational leadership—individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence—are leaders able to motivate followers to perform above expectations and transcend their self-interest for the sake of the organization.Diff: 1Page Ref: 160 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 49) Richard is a transactional leader who has just assigned a series of tasks to a project team. Which of the following is most likely to be true about the team's performance under Richard's guidance? A) They will set new standards of productivity for the department, exceeding Richard's expectations. B) They will meet the goals set for them but are unlikely to go beyond those goals. C) They will tend to be unclear about the roles assigned to each team member.D) They will be highly motivated by what they view as Richard's heroic or extraordinary qualities. E) They will tend to put the interests of the company above individual self-interest. Answ er: B Explanation: B) Transactional leaders set goals for their employees and define roles and expectations. Unlike transformational leaders, however, transactional leaders are unlikely to motivate their employees to exceed expectations or go beyond the call of duty. Diff: 3Page Ref: 160 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 4 50) Researchers are conducting a study of a company called Acme Corp. which they believe to be led by a transformational leader. Which of the following, if true, would most support the conclusion that Acme's leader is a transformational leader? A) Acme's top managers often disagree over defining the organization's goals. B) Acme's goals tend to be very ambitious and to hold personal value for employees. C) Acme has a centralized decision-making structure. D) Acme's performance has held at average levels for the past three years. E) Acme's compensation plans are designed to reward short-term results. Answer: BExplanation: B) In companies with transformational leaders, followers are more likely to pursue ambitious goals, agree on the strategic goals of the organization, and believe the goals they are pursuing are personally important. There is greater decentralization of responsibility, managers have more propensity to take risks, and compensation plans are geared toward long-term results. All these factors result in superior organizational performance. Diff: 3Page Ref: 160 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 4 51) Two companies, Roland Media and Go! Corp, are both headed by ransformational leaders. However, Roland Media showed much greater profitability over a 5-year time period than did Go! Corp. Which of the following best explains why Roland Media performed better than Go! Corp under transformational leadership? A) Roland Media's leader goes through a complex bureaucratic structure, whereas Go! Corp's leader regularly interacts with the company's workforce to make decisions. B) Unlike Go! Corp's em ployees, Roland Media's employees don't readily give up decision-making authority. C) Roland Media is a small, privately held firm, whereas Go!Corp is a large, complex public company. D) Roland Media is headquartered in a low power distance region, whereas Go! Corp is headquartered in a country that is high in power distance. E) Roland Media's employees tend to be more highly individualistic than do Go! Corp's employees. Answer: C Explanation: C) Transformational leadership is most effective in small, privately held companies. It is less effective in complex organizations. Transformational leaders are more effective in improving group potency in teams higher in power distance and collectivism.They are less effective when leaders must deal with bureaucratic structures, when employees are highly individualistic, and when employees don't easily give up decision-making authority. Diff: 3Page Ref: 162 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 4 52) Which of the following wo uld best serve as evidence to support the conclusion that an individual is an authentic leader? A) The leader is cautious about information sharing and tends to provide updates only to top management. B) In business exchanges, the leader puts the company's bottom line before his or her ideals.C) The leader acts in the company's best interest as long as those interests don't conflict with his personal ambitions. D) The leader constantly questions his or her values. E) The leader inspires a great deal of trust in his or her followers. Answer: E Explanation: E) Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers consider them ethical people. The primary quality produced by authentic leadership, therefore, is trust. Authentic leaders share information, encourage open communication, and stick to their ideals. Diff: 3Page Ref: 163 Quest.Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 53) The concept of aut hentic leadership focuses on ________. A) the moral aspects of being a leader B) the unconventional behavior of the leader C) the readiness of followers D) the situational component of leadership E) the transactional aspect of leadership Answer: A Explanation: A) Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers consider them ethical people. This concept is a promising way to think about ethics and trust in leadership because it focuses on the moral aspects of being a leader.Diff: 2Page Ref: 163 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 54) The concept of socialized charismatic leadership seeks to integrate charismatic leadership with ________ leadership. A) transformational B) production-oriented C) relational D) ethical E) transactional Answer: D Explanation: D) Scholars have tried to integrate ethical and charismatic leadership by advancing the idea of socialized charismatic leaders hip—leadership that conveys other centered (not self centered) values by leaders who model ethical conduct.Socialized charismatic leaders are able to bring employee values in line with their own values through their words and actions. Diff: 1Page Ref: 163 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 55) ________ is a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn out. A) Consideration B) Trust C) Empowerment D) Empathy E) Respect Answer: B Explanation: B) Trust is a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn out.Even though you aren't completely in control of the situation, you are willing to take a chance that the other person will come through for you. Diff: 1Page Ref: 164 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 56) All of the following are cons equences of a relationship of trust between supervisors and employees, except that ________. A) trust facilitates information sharing B) trusting groups are more effective C) trust discourages taking risks D) trust enhances productivity E) company bottom-lines are positively influenced by trust Answer: CExplanation: C) Trust between supervisors and employees is related to a number of positive employment outcomes. Trust encourages taking risks, facilitates information sharing, and enhances productivity. Trusting groups are more effective. Diff: 2Page Ref: 165 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 57) Which of the following statements accurately describes the attribution theory of leadership? A) Leadership is merely an attribution people make about other individuals. B) Good leaders attribute their successes to their team or group members. C) Leadership qualities are attributions that are independent of performance.D) The achievement of group goals are rarely attributed to good leadership. E) Leadership is an attribute that individuals are born with. Answer: A Explanation: A) The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution people make about other individuals. Thus we attribute to leaders intelligence, outgoing personality, strong verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding, and industriousness. At the organizational level, we tend to see leaders, rightly or wrongly, as responsible for extremely negative or extremely positive performance. Diff: 2Page Ref: 165 Quest.Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 58) The President of a small Asian country was hailed as a visionary and a genius when the nation's economy burgeoned during his first term in office. However, when the currency and the stock-markets crashed during his government's second term, he was censured as arrogant, elitist, and short-sighted. This scenario reflects the ________ theory of leadership. A) traits B) behavioral C) LMX D) substitutes E) attribution Answer: E Ex planation: E) The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution people make about other individuals.Thus we attribute to leaders intelligence, outgoing personality, strong verbal skills, aggressiveness, understanding, and industriousness. At the organizational level, we tend to see leaders, rightly or wrongly, as responsible for extremely negative or extremely positive performance. Diff: 3Page Ref: 165 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 5 59) According to research, which of the following is true about demographic assumptions that are made about leaders? A) Leaders are likely to be assumed to be white. B) White leaders are no more likely to be rated effective than leaders from other racial groups.C) Teams invariably prefer male leaders. D) Teams prefer female leaders when aggressively competing against other teams. E) Teams prefer male leaders when the competition is within teams and calls for improving positive relationships within th e group. Answer: A Explanation: A) Respondents in a study assumed a leader described with no identifying racial information was white at a rate beyond the base rate of white employees in a company. In scenarios where identical leadership situations are described but the leaders' race is manipulated, white leaders are rated as more effective than leaders of other racial groups.Diff: 2Page Ref: 166 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 60) Zenith Technologies has a very flat organizational system with few managers. Instead, it has a rigid system of clear, formalized goals, clear procedures, and cohesive work groups. In this case, the various components of the organizational system are acting as ________ to formal leadership by replacing the support and ability offered by leaders. A) detriments B) traits C) attributes D) substitutes E) supplements Answer: D Explanation: D) One theory of leadership suggests that in many situations leaders' actions are irrelevant.Experience and tra ining are among the substitutes that can replace the need for a leader's support or ability to create structure. Organizational characteristics such as explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, and cohesive work groups can also replace formal leadership. Diff: 3Page Ref: 166 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 5 61) Trust which is based on a mutual understanding of each other's intentions and appreciation of the other's wants and desires is referred to as ________. A) substitute trustB) identification-based trust C) attributional trust D) assumption-based trust E) socialized trust Answer: B Explanation: B) Identification-based trust, based on a mutual understanding of each other's intentions and appreciation of the other's wants and desires, is particularly difficult to achieve without face-to-face interaction. It's not yet clear whether it's even possible for employees to identify with or trust leaders with whom they communicate only electronically. Diff: 1Page Ref: 167 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 2) Because he has an internationally based team, Leo and the team do most of their business communications via e-mail. Which of the following represents what is least likely to be true of Leo's experience working with the team in an online environment? A) Leo relies heavily on his written skills to communicate support and inspiration. B) Team members must be particularly adept at reading emotions in others' messages C) Team members tend to have high levels of identification-based trust. D) Negotiations between team members sometimes stall due to lack of trust.E) Leo uses written communication to reinforce what he conveys to team members verbally. Answer: C Explanation: C) Online leaders confront unique challenges, particularly around developing and maintaining trust. Identification-based trust, based on a mutual understanding of each other's intentions and appreciation of the others wants and desires, is particularly difficult to achieve without face-to-face interaction. Leo's team would be least likely to experience high levels of identification-based trust. Online negotiations might also be hindered because parties express lower levels of trust.Diff: 2Page Ref: 167 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 5 63) According to the GLOBE project, which of the following is true of the leadership style preferred by Brazilian employees? A) leaders high on consideration B) leaders with a nonparticipative style C) leaders who take self-governing decisions D) leaders who act alone without engaging the group E) task oriented leaders Answer: A Explanation: A) Based on the values of Brazilian employees, leaders in Brazil would need to be team oriented, participative, and humane.Leaders high on consideration who emphasize participative decision making and have high LPC scores would be best suited to managing employees in this culture. Brazilians do not prefer leaders who take self-governing d ecisions and act alone without engaging the group. Diff: 2Page Ref: 168 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 64) According to the GLOBE project, which of the following is true of the leadership style preferred by employees in France? A) people-oriented leaders B) leaders with high LPC scores C) leaders with a participative decision-making styleD) leaders with high initiating structure E) relationship oriented leaders Answer: D Explanation: D) Compared to U. S. employees, the French have a more bureaucratic view of leaders and are less likely to expect them to be humane and considerate. A leader high on initiating structure (relatively task oriented) will do best and can make decisions in a relatively autocratic manner. A manager who scores high on consideration (people oriented) may find that style backfiring in France. Diff: 2Page Ref: 168 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 5) According to the GLOBE study on the global implications of leadership, employees in this c ountry are more likely to value team-oriented and participative leadership than U. S. employees. However, since it has a relatively high-power-distance culture, status differences between leaders and followers are expected. Therefore, the leader should ask employees for their opinions, try to minimize conflicts, but not be afraid to take charge and make the final decision (after consulting team members). Identify this country. A) China B) Brazil C) Egypt D) FranceE) Sweden Answer: C Explanation: C) Employees in Egypt are more likely to value team-oriented and participative leadership than U. S. employees. However, Egypt is also a relatively high-power-distance culture, meaning status differences between leaders and followers are expected. So, a manager must be participative yet demonstrate his or her high level of status by asking employees for their opinions, trying to minimize conflicts, and yet not being afraid to take charge and making the final decision (after consulting team m embers). Diff: 2Page Ref: 168Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 66) According to the GLOBE project, which of the following is true of the leadership style preferred by employees in China? A) leaders who are team-oriented and humane B) leaders with high LPC scores C) leaders who take self-governing decisions D) leaders with a moderately participative style E) leaders who act alone without engaging the group Answer: D Explanation: D) According to the GLOBE study, Chinese culture emphasizes being polite, considerate, and unselfish, but it also has a high performance orientation.These two factors suggest consideration and initiating structure may both be important. Although Chinese culture is relatively participative compared to that of the United States, there are also status differences between leaders and employees. This suggests a moderately participative style may work best. Diff: 2Page Ref: 168 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 Leo supervises a global team of pr oject members based in multiple countries. Maria is Brazilian; Jean-Paul is French, Amit is Egyptian, and Xiang is Chinese. Leo is American and is based in the United States. 7) In the light on the findings of the GLOBE project, which team members can be expected to respond most favorably when Leo exhibits high levels of initiating structure? A) Jean-Paul and Xiang B) Amit and Xiang C) Maria and Jean-Paul D) Amit and Maria E) Xiang and Amit Answer: A Explanation: A) France and China are countries where individuals tend to value initiating structure. The French have a bureaucratic view of leaders and expect leaders to make decisions relatively autocratically. The Chinese have a high performance orientation that emphasizes status differences between employees.Leaders with high initiating structures therefore have better results in these countries. Diff: 3Page Ref: 168 AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Behavioral Theories Quest. Category: Application LO: 6 68) Which of the following te am members would be least likely to respond favorably if Leo made project-related decisions independently, without consulting the team? A) Maria B) Jean-Paul C) Amit D) Xiang E) Maria and Jean-Paul Answer: A Explanation: A) Brazilians value participatory decision-making. Maria would thus be least likely to respond favorably to autocratic decision-making onLeo's part. As one Brazilian manager remarked in a research study, â€Å"We do not prefer leaders who take self-governing decisions and act alone without engaging the group. That's part of who we are. † Diff: 3Page Ref: 168 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 6 69) The team agrees that a large component of the project will be carried out at the Chinese headquarters, with Xiang responsible for leading that support team. Based on what the GLOBE project concludes about Chinese culture, which of the following leader behaviors would be most effective?A) infrequent decision-making B) highly participatory decisi on-making C) autocratic decision-making D) decision-making without initiating structure E) moderately participatory decision-making Answer: E Explanation: E) Chinese culture emphasizes being polite, considerate, and unselfish, but it also has a high performance orientation. These two factors suggest consideration and initiating structure may both be important. Although Chinese culture is relatively participative compared to that of the United States, there are also status differences between leaders and employees.This suggests a moderately participative style may work best there. Diff: 3Page Ref: 168 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 6 70) In carrying out a transformational approach to overseeing the project, Leo strives to implement the universal elements of transformational leadership. He most likely implements all of the following except ________. A) vision B) providing encouragement C) positiveness D) proactiveness E) silent leadership Answer: E Explanation : E) The silence of a leader is very powerful in Japan, but not necessarily in other countries.Silent leadership is, therefore, not considered one of the university elements of transformational leadership. The elements are: vision, foresight, providing encouragement, trustworthiness, dynamism, positiveness, and proactiveness. Diff: 1Page Ref: 168 AACSB: Analytic Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 6 71) The term leadership is synonymous with management. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Although often used interchangeably, the terms leadership and management have two different meanings. John Kotter of the Harvard Business School argues that management is the ability to cope with complexity.Leadership, by contrast, is defined as the ability to cope with change. Diff: 1Page Ref: 150 Objective: Management and Leadership Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 1 72) Nonsanctioned leadership is usually less important than formal influence. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Nonsanctioned leadersh ip—the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization—is often as important or more important than formal

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Human Beings Are Responsible For The Issue Of Global...

Individuals that believe human beings are directly accountable for the issue of global climate change due to the anthropocentric mind-set (human dominance over nature), evident by the climate change science, believe we must change our mind-set in order to save the plant from further harm. Greenhouse gases are ensnared in the air and are rapidly increasing the temperature of the planet, since the gases basically absorb the warmth from the sunlight. Human beings are responsible for releasing the gases in massive quantities, gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. Human beings have been burning fossil fuels and releasing carbon dioxide, in such massive amounts that there is simply too much of it in the atmosphere. Typically, carbon dioxide would be naturally released by the human beings, animals, and the planet, which would be consumed by vegetation, so it should be a natural and harmless occurrence. However, we have progressively deteriorated our environment including the forests to such an extent, it is no surprise that nature cannot keep up with the massive amount of carbon dioxide being produced. It is unnatural and strictly the work of human beings and it is the result of our obsessive and excessive overconsumption of natural resources. Methane is also a gas being released by human beings mainly through drilling into the ground for fossil fuels, by something called fracking. When fracking, we drill horizontally into the earth’s surface inserting water and sand withShow MoreRelatedReview of The Great Global Warming Swindle1281 Words   |  6 Pages The Great Global Warming Swindle has been the most widely watched documentary critical of the scientific consensus that climate cha nge is due to anthropogenic activities. Aired in 2007 in the United Kingdom, the documentary claimed to debunk the â€Å"myth† of manmade global climate change, exposing it as a vast conspiracy designed to gain funding for research and push an environmental agenda that is especially harmful to the developing world. Directed by British producer Martin Durkin, the documentaryRead MoreHumans Are Responsible For Global Warming877 Words   |  4 Pagesinternet about ice caps melting and strong storms devastating cities. Global warming is a serious issue that should be put in consideration. However, before trying to fix such issue. We should focus on what is causing global warming. Humans are responsible for global warming. Even though, most of the earth’s population deny being responsible for global contamination/global warming. A slight change on temperature can cause a big change on the earth’s weather and environment (i.e. ice caps melting or longRead MoreThe Effects Of Global Warming On Earth1577 Words   |  7 Pagesto be. It is known as global warming. Global warming is constant rise in the global average temperature near the surface of the earth. Although to some, global warming is nothing more than a myth, a rumor to scare the race into rethinking their selfish acts, but global warming is no myth. I believe that global warming is far from a myth, it is real and it is dangerous. The evidence is all around us. If you look to the stars, you can see that the atmosphere is full of human-produced molecules thatRead MoreThe Debate On Global Climate Change1605 Words   |  7 PagesThe debate on global climate change argues that human-generated greenhouse gas emissions are too small to substantially change the earth’s climate and that the planet is capable of absorbing those increases. It is c ontended that warming over the 20th century resulted primarily from natural processes such as fluctuations in the sun s heat and ocean currents. But the theory of human-caused global climate change is based on questionable measurements, faulty climate models, and misleading science. InRead MoreThe Effects Of Fossil Fuels On The Environment1734 Words   |  7 Pagesa point of no return, warns President Obama, â€Å"we are condemning future generations to global catastrophe.† The point of no return metaphorically represents the place in ones journey that must be continued with no alternative routes or ability to make change. In consort with President Obama, many scientists believe the point of no return could occur if significant efforts aren’t made soon. Anthropogenic (human influenced) activities in comparison to natural influences have more of an impact on theRead MoreThe Climatic Changes And Global Warming Essay1650 Words   |  7 Pagesclimatic changes have been a controversial issue over scientists, politicians, and people in general. Indeed, many aspects in which climatic changes and global warming step in are being sources of controversies and disagreements. In this opportunity, the discussion regarding climatic changes divides it into two different aspects, the first one involves how scientists think about the principal cause of climatic changes while analyzing the question â€Å"Are humans responsible for climatic changes? WhileRead MoreClimate Change Essays1637 Words   |  7 Pagesclimatologists, the notion of Global warming today is commonly heard but very misunderstood. One might ask, what exactly is global warming and should we care? According to What is Global Warming? in LiveScience, global warming is a gradual increase in the temperature of Earths surface and atmosphere, that has become a world-wide environmental issue.1(Lallanilla,2013) Similarly, this topic is one of great controversy because of widely differing opinions on current global warming rates and the impactRead MoreWhat Are The Risks Of Climate Change And Global Warming?1518 Words   |  7 Pagesrisks of climate change and global warming? Climate change has been a pertinent issue in the media as of the past decade. With much debate on its severity, some simply believe that it is the result of alternating weather patterns. Meanwhile, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change claims that global warming â€Å"has been driven by human activity,† continuing on to say that its existence is â€Å"unequivocal† (sciencemag). As most scientific research suggests, it is evident that climate change is negativelyRead MoreCauses Of Environmental Issues1467 Words   |  6 Pagesmany issues are going around the world. People are living with along environmental issue, social issue, personal issue, and more. Each issue can be important for a person while can be unnecessary to the others. Also, some people try to solve those issues while the others do not care. However, the global issues around the world are the most serious and concerning problems. According to Globe scan, 64% out of 25,000 people said environmental issue is the most serious problem. Like other issues, environmentalRead MoreThe Climatic Changes And Global Warming Essay1659 Words   |  7 PagesThe climatic changes have been an issue of controversies around scientists, politicians, and people in general. Indeed, there are many aspects in which climatic changes and global warming step in, being sources of controversies and disagreements. In this opportunity, the discussion about climatic changes will be divided into two different aspects, the first one involves how scientists think about the main cause of climatic changes while analyzing the question â€Å"Are humans responsible for climatic

Saturday, December 28, 2019

My Emerging Philosophy of Education - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1662 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/06/24 Category Education Essay Level High school Topics: Philosophy Of Education Essay Did you like this example? I believe that many aspects of my first semester as an undergraduate student in the University of Limerick have contributed to my emerging philosophy of education. From attending lectures, participating in educational tutorials and reflecting upon the designated readings. I have developed a substantial understanding towards the thought process of what it takes to be a successful educator. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "My Emerging Philosophy of Education" essay for you Create order It was clear to me from the outset of this semester that I will have to forge my own personalised philosophy of education. I have gained knowledge and reflected on the thoughts and ideologies of key philosophers that I feel I now have a deeper understanding of what education is and have begun the journey of realising what kind of educator I believe would lead to me having the ability to teach students in the most effective way possible. Firstly I would describe education itself as the passing on of knowledge and skills to people in different ways, while also maintaining the path of a learner as there is always new knowledge to be gained (O Connor, 2018, LL05). This description came as a result of my reflections during week 05 of this module as I resonated deeply with the ideologies that Dewey expresses in Experience and Education (Dewey, 1938). I strongly agree with Deweys progressive style of teaching, I believe it is important for teachers to engage with their students by questioning them and challenging them in their class. I am of the mindset that if teachers engage with their students more, it will inevitably result in a better learning environment for all individuals. Although there are many benefits to this style of teaching I do believe that some traditional methods such as the focus on the material being distributed to the class and that the teacher maintains control over the class are vital when trying to develop a successful learning environment. This is particularly important in the Irish education system as it is heavily based upon the Leaving Certificate. It is important that teachers do not get sidetracked and allows the students to dictate what is being thought in the class, this I believe, is the most commanding and difficult element of the progressive method of education. I also believe that education through experience plays a pivotal role in the learning capabilities of a student. I formulate this belief through the expression of Dewey; he suggests that if an educator builds up a rapport with their students and creates a sense of common ground through shared experience then their active union with each other provide the measure of the educative significance and value of an experience (Dewey, 1938). I agree with Dewey in the regard as a student can feel more engaged in the class if they can see that the teacher is being respectful towards them and their experience. I refer to my desire to be this type of teacher in week 06 of my Learning Log: i would strive to be an active teacher who asks questions, as this would indicate to the students that I truly care about what they have to say (O Connor, 2018, LL06). Asking questions and getting to know ones students is pivotal in terms of determining the academic ability of the students. As a future teacher of mathematics I would ensure that I get to know my students well in order to create a significant educational environment. I would then follow the process of Deweys experiential learning (Dewey 1938), by challenging the students, allowing them the freedom to discover what needs to be learned. While doing this it would be important as the teacher to ensure that the work being done is still on-task as there is still a course to be completed at the end of the year and the reality is that the particular course needs to be finished to give the students the best possible resources to achieve well in the state exams. Education should be available to each and every person possible. This ideology formed as a result of my reading the thoughts of Paulo Frieres Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2(Friere, 1972). My reflection of frieres thoughts of an alternative to traditional teaching is captured in week 09 of my Learning Log: Frieres Problem posing education is centred around critical thinking and making students aware of their own social reality (O Connor, 2018, LL09). I agree with this philosophy as it is an ideology that strives to make education available for everyone. This is important for me in terms of my philosophy of education as I will be teaching students of different nationalities, ethnicities and it will be my duty as a teacher to challenge these students in order to allow them to be aware of their social realities and help them understand further through challenging them in various ways. It is effectively summarised as friere states education should be known as: the practice of freedom - as opposed to the practice of dominance (Friere, 1972). This entails that education should be enjoyed and expressed openly, rather than focussed on success and fear of failure. I intend to be an educator that makes school enjoyable for students and try my best to make students feel comfortable as it will aid the main goal of creating the best learning environment possible. It is also important for an educator to acknowledge that there will always be new information and new knowledge in their particular subject area. This was highlighted to me when Postman and Weingartner announce a particular notion in Teaching as a Subversive Activity: The Vaccination theory of education (Postman and Weingartner, 1969). He suggests that some people and particularly some educators believe that once they have studied their desired subject that they feel as if they do not need to continue learning and instead focus on teaching the particular area. When in reality it is incredibly advisable for a teacher to be investing their time to be frequently expanding their knowledge and to be open to new ideas, this commitment to their own learning will inevitably benefit the learning of their students by being able to answer any question posed to them. They also depict an educator that is described as an inquiring teacher (Postman and Weingartner, 1969), I intend on being somewhat like this as I feel through reading their descriptions that this style of teaching would allow me to have a long lasting positive effect on the learning environment of the students I teach. To revert back to the progressive style of teaching mentioned previously, this inquiry based teaching would lead to a heightened level of student engagement, encourage student- student interactions and allow lessons to develop from the responses of students. Therefore it will be an ambition of mine to carry out this method of teaching to the fullest in my future as an educator of both Physical Education and Mathematics. The theory versus practice debate is a central topic when first forging a philosophy of education. It is now clear to me that they are both important in successful education. It is important not to focus too much on one particular aspect. A guest speaker in one of my lectures describes: theory should be taken as a prescription of practice (Adenusi, 2018). This effectively summarises my thoughts of this debate as I believe to be an effective educator, one must be aware of the theory behind their own subject and the theory behind how to transfer information. However, to come back to my own description of what education itself is, an educator must be adaptable and know when a particular theory of passing information is not working. People learn things and absorb information in different ways; it is up to the teacher to practically come up with a way of transferring knowledge to the student in the most effective way possible rather than sticking to a rigid theory. I reflected upon this t opic in week 02 of my Learning Log, it is more beneficial for students that are willing to learn when they have a teacher that is practically adaptable along with being theoretically up to date with teaching methods and overall knowledge (O Connor, 2018, LL02). I believe that setting up a good foundation of how I will utilise both theory and practice will contribute towards my ambition of being the best educator I can possibly be. As an aspiring Physical Education and Mathematics teacher it will be vital for me to balance both theory and practice in my profession as both subject areas are quite demanding in both respects. It is my responsibility to develop an understanding of both aspects and perform to my highest ability to allow the students I teach to gain the experience needed to succeed in their future lives To revert back to my own emerging philosophy, I hope that I can be a teacher that focuses on the wellbeing of the students through a progressive method of engaging with my students and challenging them by allowing them to have freedom over how they approach learning. However I would also hope to maintain a sense of direction in the overall process of teaching the class a desired subject as the education system relies on good performance in examinations. Reference List: Adenusi, T. (2018)Philosophy of Education, EN4041: Contemporary Understandings and Thinking of Education, 2 Oct, University of Limerick, Unpublished. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience education. New York: Macmillan, pp.17-23. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience education. New York: Macmillan, pp. 42-45 Freire, P., Ramos, M., Macedo, D. and Shor, I. (1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum, pp.60-63. Postman, N. and Weingartner, C. (1969). TEACHING AS A SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITY. NEW YORK: DELACORTE, pp.8-14. O Connor, J. 2018. Learning Log Week 02, University of Limerick, EN4041: Contemporary Understandings of and Thinking on Education. O Connor, J. 2018. Learning Log Week 05, University of Limerick, EN4041: Contemporary Understandings of and Thinking on Education. O Connor, J. 2018. Learning Log Week 06, University of Limerick, EN4041: Contemporary Understandings of and Thinking on Education. O Connor, J. 2018. Learning Log Week 09, University of Limerick, EN4041: Contemporary Understandings of and Thinking on Education.

Friday, December 20, 2019

Bible Versus the Toran - 12356 Words

Name: Sandra R. Gibson Student I.D.: 0405713 Course: REL-275-OL Date: 9/3/2011 Final Project TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION PAGE 1 II. AUTHORSHIP OF THE BIBLE PAGE 2 - 9 III. THE BIBLE PAGE 10 - 18 IV. AUTHORSHIP OF THE QURAN PAGE 19 V. THE QURAN PAGE 20 - 23 VI. THE BIBLE COMPARED TO QURAN PAGE 24-28 VII. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM COMPARED TO THE TEN PAGE 29-34 COMMANDMENTS VIII. COMPARING THE LIFE OF TWO AFRO-AMERICANS (1) MALCOM X - ISLAMIC†¦show more content†¦History of Judah only. (THE NEXT 3 BOOKS DEAL WITH ISRAELS RESTORATION) 10. EZRA - Cyrus let most of the Jews return to their land of Israel. Zerubbabel led the people (539 B.C.). Ezra returned later with more Jews (458 B.C.) built the temple. 11. NEHEMIAH - Building the walls of Jerusalem. Nehemiah got permission from the King of Persia to rebuild the walls (444 B.C.). Revival in the land. 12. ESTHER - Took place during chapters 6 and 7 of Ezra. Mordecai. Plot to kill the Jewish people. C. POETICAL - 5 BOOKS 1. JOB - A righteous man tested by God. Deals with Gods sovereignty. 2. PSALMS - Consists of 5 divisions. Worship in song. Large variety of subjects. 3. PROVERBS - Practical wisdom in everyday affairs. 4. ECCLESIASTES - All is vanity. The wisdom of man is futility. 5. SONG OF SOLOMON - A song between Solomon and his Shulammite bride, displaying the love between a man and a woman. (5) D. PROPHETICAL - 17 BOOKS (MAJOR PROPHETS - 5 BOOKS) 1. ISAIAH - Looks at the sin of Juddah and proclaims Gods judgement. 2. JEREMIAH - Called by God to proclaim the news of judgement to Judah, which came. God establishes a new covenant. 3. LAMENTATIONS - 5 lament poems. Description of defeat and fall of Jerusalem 4. EZEKIEL - He ministered to the Jews in captivity in Babylon. Description of the end of times. 5. DANIEL - Many visions of the future for the Gentiles and the Jews. (MINOR PROPHETS - 12 BOOKS) 1. HOSEA - Story of

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Capital Budgeting Techniques Project

Question: Discuss about the Capital Budgeting Techniques Project. Answer: Introduction This project discusses about capital budgeting techniques. In capital budgeting how a project is being selected from a different set of alternatives is described. In capital budgeting there are various techniques that can be used, like decision tree analysis, net present value, internal rate of return, average rate of return, accounting rate of return. In the given report some of techniques are discussed like sensitivity analysis, scenario analysis, capital asset pricing model and capital market line (Ross, 2009). However it does not give a guarantee regarding the returns, but provide an expected value through analyzing various models about the future returns under a given portfolio. It is considered as one of the challenging task for a financial manager, as a considerable amount of money would be invested in a portfolio. Hence the decision regarding the portfolio management must be taken seriously. Corporate decision making In a corporate when a decision is taken from a set of different alternatives in order to achieve the organizational goals and objective. This process is called as corporate decision making. It is an integral part of the corporation. This is a continuous process so to run the organizational activities efficiently (McKinsey company, 2009). The corporate decision making is considered as a process of achieving best results of an outcome. Sensitivity analysis This analysis is used to analyze the variations in input of a model with the change in circumstances. The changes can be in terms of qualitative and quantitative terms (Wallace). The relevancy of this analysis is to know about the variation in the input variables in case of some uncertainty happened (Bris). This model is used in case to make sure about ensuring the reliability of the project and the quality of the project. However sensitivity analysis is also used in knowing about similarity between the applied model and process, variations in input factors, interaction between factors, factors affecting output variables. This model is used in risk analysis, financial applications, and where the projects are being selected. This analysis is easy to use, communicate. This analysis helps the corporate managers in taking better decisions in relation to achieve breakeven point, cash flow analysis (Chapter 6, Probabilistic approaches). In relation to capital budgeting Sensitivity analysis is used in capital budgeting to get a clear view on to take or not to take a project. In capital budgeting, sensitive analysis changes one assumption at a time in order to analyze the effect on the outcome. Sensitive analysis is used to estimate about the effect on the project if some assumptions turn out to be unreliable (Koining). In capital budgeting, sensitive analysis is highly used. As NPV analysis is also used in capital budgeting, and also tells about the risk analysis, cash flow and break even analysis. But a small change can convert a positive NPV to a negative NPV. That is the reason sensitivity analysis is used in capital budgeting in order to analyze apart from variable costing (Peterson, Fabozzi, 2002). Scenario analysis This analysis is used to know about the changes in possible outcomes in respect of some alternative outcomes. It defines the average of cash flows in respect to possible circumstances. In scenario analysis the value of an asset of future cash flows are expected so to better understanding about the risk analysis under the given project (Khan Jain, 2008). In a portfolio which contains a risky project can vary in cash flows. That is cash flows can differ from the expectations. In scenario analysis, it has two case scenarios that are best case scenario and worst case scenario. If the project cash flows meet out the expectations it is said to be as best case scenario (Gitman, Juchau Flanagan, 2011). Whereas in case the cash flows do not meet out the expectations it is considered as worst case scenario. However this is not reliable because in best case scenario in order to meet cash flows, revenue needs to be generated, and for that cost may be cut down, this would increase in sales but simultaneously increase in variable cost too. While in case of worst case scenarios, as the cash flow are less, which can be due to risk factor. However in scenario analysis besides from best and worst case scenarios, multiple scenarios can be considered with variations in assumption in economic and asset variables. This analysis can be measured for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis (Doss, Sumrall, McElealth Jones, 2013). In relation to capital budgeting In capital budgeting, in order to select the best portfolio, scenario analysis is used. In scenario analysis two case scenarios are determined. And according to them the amount to be invested in a project is determined (Bedi, 2005). However there can be other assumptions which can affect the decisions in capital budgeting. In big firms, scenario analysis is highly adopted. Although in capital budgeting, NPV is highly preferred, but at the same time it has been criticized in case of variations in assumptions. That is the reason scenario analysis is used in capital budgeting (Lasher, 2014). Capital asset pricing model CAPM is a technique adopted by investors to know about investing in a project or not. This is done by considering the expecting return at the given risk. CAPM is used to compensate the amount of expected return in terms of time value of money and the systematic risk. In CAPM the risk factor is considered as beta which is compared with return of assets of the market and market premium which is the difference between market risk rate and risk free rate. According to CAPM model the expected return of the security must be compared with the risk free rate and risk premium. If the expected return is not matched with required rate of return, the project must not be undertaken (Sharifzadeh, 2010). The CAPM model has some assumptions like investors are more interested in wealth generation; investors are free to sell the securities in which they are not interested. Investors are assumed to have same expectations; all the financial assets are fully divisible that is investors can purchase and sell the securities as they wants. All the securities are sold and purchased at market price. The securities do not levies transaction costs. Market prices cannot be influenced by the investors. There are no taxes. The CAPM equation is Ra= Rf+ (Rm-Rf) In the above equation: Ra= rate of return of the security or portfolio Rf= Risk free rate = beta factor that is systematic risk Rm= market rate of return For better understanding of CAPM model, it can be explained by quoting an example. Let say there is an asset called ABC, whose Rf= 3%, Rm= 10%, and = .75. it is required to calculate required rate of return using CAPM model. The solution to this would be: Ra= Rf+ (Rm-Rf) Rf Rm 0.03 0.10 0.75 Ra= Rf+ (Rm-Rf) 8% Capital market line CML is used in CAPM model in order to determine the required rate of return for the portfolio in respect to the level of risk which is also calculated by standard deviation and risk free rate. It is a line which depicts a relationship between market portfolio and risk free assets. It represents the premium earned by taking extra amount of risk. When a tangent line is drawn from the pint of risk free to the feasible area of risky assets, it is called as capital market line (Capital asset pricing model). The assumptions of CML model is that all the investors has same expectations on variances and mean. Prices can be adjusted to make the market efficient. The investor will select the assets in his/her portfolio on the basis of risky and risk free assets existing in the given portfolio. Equation to CML model is: In the above equation of CML ?=mean, = standard deviation of rate of return in a portfolio (?M- rf)/ M = slope of CML According to this equation, if there is an increase in one unit in standard deviation, the expected rate of return must increase accordingly. This can be understood by quoting an example. Let say the current price of a security is $875. It is expected to provide return of $1000 in a year. The standard deviation of the return () = 40% and Rf = 10%. It has also been provided that the market rate of return is 17% and M= 12% for portfolio. It is required to compute that whether the given security is efficient or not (Capital asset pricing model and factor models). The solution to the given question is Rf Rm M Rm-Rf Rm-Rf)/M 0.1 0.17 0.12 0.4 0.07 0.58333333 ?= Rf + [(Rm-Rf)/M]* 33.33% Graph of CML According to the CML model all the investor lie upon capital market line. Risk takers rest at right of the efficient frontier line, whereas risk avoiders are at the left of the efficient frontier line. Similarities between CAPM and CML CAPM consists of two models, those are CML and SML. CAPM and CML model are positively correlated. That is it has been assumed in both the models that the investor would take more risk only when there is an expectancy of getting more returns. Both the models are used by the modern theorist in order to select the best securities in their portfolio. However CML is a part of CAPM (Sigman, 2005). Differences between CAPM and CML CAPM model is used for multiple numbers of securities or a number of portfolios rather in a single security. It is highly used by modern theorist also in order to make investment decisions and investing in best portfolio. CAPM model is being used for multiple securities like stock, bonds. CAPM model is used for calculating the fair value of the project by considering the future returns to current returns (Sigman, 2005). The major difference between CAPM and CML is that CAPM holds the securities which can be efficient or non efficient. But in case of CML it consists of only efficient portfolio. Recommendations By analyzing capital budgeting techniques, it is recommended that as usually preferred techniques are NPV, IRR, and ARR etc. hence for effective capital decision making, the cash flows to be considered should be at present value. The investor should consider the time value of money. Apart from this the inflow to be considered should be the net cash flow, which is accounting profit should be avoided during capital budgeting decisions. In cash flow manger should do an incremental analysis, in that tax impact should be considered, so as to make effective decision making. It should be adopted by big MNCs but it is advisable that every company should adopt such techniques. Conclusion Hence by techniques laid down in the report, it can be said that before investing in a portfolio, risk and return analysis must be done in depth to get an overview of the future returns. However more than one technique in capital budgeting can be used in order to get more assured about the returns. It can also be concluded that the risk and return patterns changes according to the market, which is every market has its own risk and return rate of securities. An analytical process must be followed in case of capital budgeting. By analytical process it is meant that the answers should be finding out before investing in any project. That is, is there a need to invest in a project?, how much amount would be requiring to invest, in what type of securities should be invested, what will be the future cash flows, when the breakeven point would be achieved. There are many other question too which need to be answered depending upon the corporation, and market References Bedi,A. (2005 ) Capital Budgeting, Deep Deep publications, New Delhi Bris,M. Sensitivity analysis as a managerial decision making tool, Sensitivity analysis as a managerial decision making tool. Retrieved at https://www.efos.unios.hr/repec/osi/journl/PDF/InterdisciplinaryManagementResearchIII/IMR3a9.pdf Capital asset pricing model and factor models. Retrieved at https://www.math.ust.hk/~maykwok/courses/Fin_econ_05/Fin_econ_05_5.pdf Capital asset pricing model. Retrieved at https://www.personal.psu.edu/tts3/Files/Fin406/set4.pdf Chapter 6. Probabilistic approaches: scenario analysis, decision trees and simulations. Retrieved at https://people.stern.nyu.edu/adamodar/pdfiles/valrisk/ch6.pdf Doss,D,A. Sumrall III, W,H. McElealth,D,H Jones, D,W.(2013) Economic and financial analysis for criminal justice organizations, Taylor Francis group, Boca Raton Gitman,L,J. Juchau,R Flanagan,J.(2011 ) Principles of managerial finance, Pearson, Australia Khan Jain. (2008) Financial management, Tata Mc graw hill, New Delhi Koining,E. Sensitive analysis for capital budgeting. Hearst newspapers, LLC. Retrieved at https://smallbusiness.chron.com/sensitivity-analysis-capital-budgeting-10153.html Lasher,W,R. (2014 ) Practical financial management, Cengagae learning, USA McKinsey company. (2009) How companies make good decisions: McKinsey global survey results. Retrieved at https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/how-companies-make-good-decisions-mckinsey-global-survey-results Peterson, P,P Fabozzi,F,J. (2002), Capital budgeting: theory and practice, John Wiley sons, Canada Ross.(2009) Corporate finance, edition 8th, Tata Mc graw hill, New York Sharifzadeh,M. (2010) An empirical and theoretical analysis of capital asset pricing model, Boca Raton Sigman,K. (2005) Capital asset pricing model (CAPM). Retrieved at https://www.columbia.edu/~ks20/FE-Notes/4700-07-Notes-CAPM.pdf Wallace,S,W. Decision making under uncertainty- is sensitivity analysis of any use. Retrieved at https://kursinfo.himolde.no/lo-kurs/lo904/Wallace/Sensitivity.pdf

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Babatunde Smith Criminology free essay sample

Criminology is the study of the Nature, Crime caused as a social behaviour, prevention of Criminal behaviour and the enforcement of Criminal Justice System. It can also be defined as a sub group of sociology which is the scientific of social behaviour.Cesare Lombroso, an Italian physician suggests that Some people are born criminal caused by hereditary .That is , a child born of a violent/criminal parents is prone to have criminal behaviour , whiles others are caused by Poverty due to low income condition of their living. They want to live above their income. Hence, lead them to committee crime by stealing or committee robbery . Hate and discrimination against minorities may became the cause of some other crime.EmotionaI disorder caused by mental health could be the cause of their crime for an example , a patient suffering from Bi polar or any other mental health related, declining his medications may result to crime due to the effect of his poor mental state . We will write a custom essay sample on Babatunde Smith Criminology or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Criminology as the study of crime has four different perspectives which are Legal, Political , sociological and psychological perspectives .Criminal examination can be done from legal point of view . Criminal behaviour can be examined if the law is been violated , criminal law will be use to access the criminal activitiesPolitical perspectives. This are the crime committed by breaking the law of the land or code of conduct of the land . This law indicate that law exist to further the interest of the people . Sociological Perspectives focus on the social, political and economical problems that give rise to crime.Psychological perspectives which described crime as a form of a problem behaviour which caused by in-ability to live in peace with the environment . Looking at it from Psychiatric point of view , a man with history of mental health problem relating to mood swing as tendency of violent, crime related offences.Influence in Criminal BehaviourTo fully determined what constitutes criminal behaviour can cover a wide range of activities for that reason, Authors Morley and Hall (2003) pointed out three different ways to define antisocial behaviour. He equate the behaviour to criminality and juvenile delinquency which both involve in criminal acts. Any involvement in criminal act can lead to arrest and conviction. Information can be collected using court data or criminal records to analyse the influences that were present. Personality traits and disorder could be one of the diagnosis of an individual with criminal behaviour. This traits and disorder is not evident when an individual was an adult as it can only be seen in children. It is important to note that not all children diagnosed with ODD will develop CD.Holmes et al (2001) state that impulse control dysfunction and the presence of hyperactivity and inattention are the most factors for presentation of antisocial behaviour.The Influence of Nature and Nurture to criminal BehaviourNature is seen to be biological factor and genetic composition explain much of human behaviour.Freud also believed that people have the ability to learn in the early childhood , what is right and what is wrong and think we may have an instinctive nature to acquire what we desire .Such nature can be control by what we learnt on our early years. He also believed that people normally get moral principles as a child from their parent and if this were missing due to poor parental gaudiance , that child would grow without any control of natural urges to life .While Nurture is said to be believed that environment factor such as church community, school ,family are paramont in the development of behaviour pattern.Therefore it seems clearly to conclude that those families who are less financially sound , perhaps have more children , and who are unable to consistently punish their children for a wrong doing will have a greater likelihood of promoting an environment that will influence delinquent behaviour .A statistic shows that such children are at 50% greater risk of engaging in criminal act if they were abuse or neglected .If we said that Criminals are made by their surroundings and their social factors, we could confidently say that Criminals are shaped by bad influences .Maslows hierarchy of needs suggest that , when the basic need for an individual is not met or self esteem is threatened, the individual will turn on his or her defensive mechanism as reaction to this threat (Maslow, H 1943) some will resort to Burglary, stealing food and other necessities as a way of survival. However, in recent years , the cognitive revolution has again made defensive mechanism the subject of scientific investigation and cognitive , developmental and personality has been found as an evidence of their existence.